Friday, October 15, 2010

How many ethnic in sabah

Do you know how many ethnic do we have in Sabah? Any of you heard about "Jejak Etnik"? Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka's (DBP) Sabah Branch Director Zubaidi Abbas explain recently in Bernama, The Jejak Etnik is DBP's Sabah first project of the kind, one of the main objective of the programme is to map out ethnic languages in Sabah, as well as to find out how the mother tongue is being used as a language of communication at home among the ethnic races. The Sabah DBP Branch director said "Jejak Etnik" was started six month ago, and was supposed to be a five-year programme but had to be 'shelved' for the time being due to limited funds.
But the bulk of the study was concentrated at Kampung Landung Ayang Laut, Kudat, in the Sabah east coast. Kampung Landung Ayang was especially chosen for its diverse ethnic population where at least 35 dialects or sub-dialects were found to be the language of communication among its residents. The ethnic groups residing in the village include Dusun, Bajau, Sungai, Bonggi, Brunei, Murut, Melayu Suluk and Kadayan.

"We found out that the use of mother tongue as their language of communication is on the decline, whereby about 2,007 or 52.5% of the population were more proficient in Bahasa Melayu than in their 'bahasa sukuan'.

"In terms of research objectives, it can be assumed that bahasa ibunda or mother tongue is not widely used in their daily communication at home as compared to Bahasa Melayu," Zubaidi told Bernama.

He said from the 1,308 respondents among the Rungus ethnic group in Kampung Landung Ayang Laut, only 676 people within the age range of one to 19 years were still proficient in their mother tongue, while only 73 people out 240 respondents from the Ubian clan of the same age speak fluent Bahasa Ubian.

"Overall, we have interviewed about 5,779 respondents, including 1,313 people who have responded by returning the questionaires sent to them.

"In some places, we sought the help of the village head,the district office and the Kudat Native Court to deliver the forms and conduct the interviews," he said.

"Our initial study showed that there was indeed a valid concern as far as extinction of ethnic dialects in Sabah is concerned.

"This is because the younger generation below the age of 30 tend to be more comfortable speaking in Bahasa Melayu rather than in their respective ethnic languages," he said.
Zubaidi explain that for an ethnic language to survive it needs at least 100,000 people to practice the language and if the number is less than that, the language is considered as 'dying'. He cited the Begahak ethnic group residing in Mukim Tungku, Lahad Datu, as a classic example of a 'dying bahasa sukuan' because it was found out that only about 2,000 people of the ethnic group speak the Begahak language. The Tobilung ethnic community at Kampung Mengaris in Kota Marudu is also said to be losing their proficiency in their mother tongue.

The reasons behind the declining proficiency in the usage of mother tongue among the ethnic groups in Sabah includes mixed marriages involving different ethnicities. For example, if the husband is a Dusun and his wife a Sungei, the Bahasa Melayu will be the dominant language of communication at home, thus effectively 'denying' their children's chances of practicing their mother tongue.

"Another glaring factor is through migration. The moment an ethnic group migrate, their language of communication will be very much influenced by the new community or the environment," he said.

Source: Bernama.

Here is the list of ethnic language that can be found in Sabah.
  1. Bajau.
  2. Banggi.
  3. Banjar
  4. Bisaya.
  5. Bonggi.
  6. Brunei.
  7. Bugis.
  8. Chinese.
  9. Cocos.
  10. Ida'an.
  11. Illanun (Irranun).
  12. Indian.
  13. Javanese.
  14. Kadazan-Dusun.
  15. Kimaragang
  16. Kedayan.
  17. Lotud.
  18. Malay.
  19. Minokok.
  20. Murut.
  21. Nunuk Ragang.
  22. Rumanau.
  23. Rungus.
  24. Sungai. 
  25. Suluk.
  26. Tambanau.
  27. Tagalog.
  28. Tausūg.
  29. Tidong.
  30. Tobilung.
  31. Tombinuo
  32. Ubian.
 Do I missed any ethnic? Feel free to comment and share in this post.



lina said...

Wow! So many!

lina said...

Wow! So diverse!

Jamie said...

Those costumes are so beautiful!

Uncle Lee said...

Hi Zezebel, Holy Smoke! That many? And I thought only Orang Ulu, Bidayu, Kadazan....lupa few more.
But I feel happy I have Orang Ulus, Kadazans, Bidayus friends datang pondok saya.

Sabah and Sarawa has always fascinated me....those old days when there it was strictly business trips, otherwise, sure sangkut with an Orang Ulu or Kadazan lady.
And I can tell you, ISabah and Sarawak has more than their fair share of exotic beautiful women.
I must go there one day soon, ha ha.
Have a nice day, Lee.

Feron said...

Hello Zezebel, your ethnic groups looks like what we have here in the Philippines. I hope to see more of your features about your country.

Happy weekend!:=)

StellaClaire-Richard said...

Bnyk pula kan... :)

donny said...

memang ramai ethnik disabah ni..yang saya heran dari mana semua ethnik ni?..kadazan-dusun-penang tiada kah bel?haha

*MrsMartinez* said...

The word Tagalog here in the Philippines refers to a dialect. Same word different meaning huh?


Zezebel said...

You should try come to Sabah one day.

Zezebel said...

uncle Lee.
I think you already mix up Sabah with Sarawak. Bidayuh and orang Ulu for Sarawak.

Zezebel said...

Our country a close neighbours. Even our language are almost the same.

Zezebel said...

Mesti ada yang ko tia pernah dengar kan?

Zezebel said...

Yang dusun penang tu tia buli balik KM sudah tu. Hehehehehe....

Zezebel said...

I forget that it is for ethnic language not races. Thanks.

Just said...

I feel like I'm not Sabahan pulak sbb kan mcm ada 10 yg nda pernah dgr. Tu Bonggi pun tetau sbb tgk dokumentari tv ari tu.. huhuhu

gadisBunga said...

those dialects must be preserved or they will be gone forever!

Didz-W said...

..and I'm at #5 of that language u mentioned and although I can't speak Kadayan language but it's also a common language found here in my country. :)Nice informative post.

Kulanz Salleh said...

banyak etnik di Sabah ni.. Tambanau tu sama kah dengan Tombonuo?
kalau ikut sijil lahirku, ada ditulis Banjar dalam ruangan race tu.. :)

Zezebel said...

Just : Sebenarnya, ada lagi banyak, cuma tidak mendapat publisiti yang sepatutnya sebab sesetengah dari suku kaum ni tertumpu di kawasan pedalaman...

Zezebel said...

GB : Soon we will hear story about 'the lost language' huhu

Zezebel said...

Didz : Thank you. I am curious whether the language is also the same with your country or not..

Zezebel said...

Kulanz : Ada banyak yang tertinggal, rasanya tambanau tak sama dengan tombinuo. Banjar pun lupa untuk di senaraikan...terima kasih sebab tolong ingatkan.

Didz-W said...

Mungkin sama :) It's hard to tell the difference. One of my uncles is from KK..from Papar I think. Dia punya Bahasa Brunei masih sama mcm org di sini cakap (^^,)

Zezebel said...

Didz : My ipar also from Papar, and everytime dia cakap bahasa Brunei on the phone, susah saya nak faham..huhu..

Didz-W said...

Oh! Really? lol, that's funny. I think in a way, our language is still the same, it's just the accent or how it is spoken maybe that make it slightly different.
It's ok, I can interact with you both in Eng and BM sajalah ok ;)
I went to KK last April for my annual vacation. Seronok, banyak makan seafood! Sedap! hehehe

Zezebel said...

Didz : Haha..kalau seafood, you can find it easily in here. Nyum nyum.. Lapar pula rasa tiba tiba ni..haha

suri said...

wow 31 itu sudah menggambarkan satu suku yang banyak..

pasti bahasa yang digunakan agak bereza bukan???

Zezebel said...

Suri : Sebenarnya ada yang tak masuk lagi tu. Bahasa pun agak berbeza namun masih mampu untuk di fahami la..

Anonymous said...

You forgot the bahasa Sino Kadazan along the west coast of Sabah.

Anonymous said...

Info tambahan: Etnik Kadazandusun mempunyai lebih daripada 30 sub etnik, etnik Bajau juga mempunyai lebih 20 sub etnik, etnik Murut juga mempunyai lebih daripada 10 sub etnik dan etnik Orang Sungai juga mempunyai lebih daripada 20 sub etnik. Etnik2 lain ialah: Melayu Brunei, Bisaya, Kadayan, Lundayeh, Tidong, Kokos, Iban (Tawau), Kenyah (Tawau), Banjar, Jawa, Bugis, Suluk, cina, sino, peranakan India, peranakan Pakistan, peranakan Arab dan macam-macam adaaaaa...

Anonymous said...

Correct me if I'm wrong. "Suluk" is not an ethnic language. It is a Noun. Meaning the people are called "Suluk" and their spoken dialect is "Tausug".

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